Robert H. McDowall, MD is a physician (medical doctor) from New York City (NYC) with specialty in Anesthesiology.
Anesthesiologists provide for the general welfare and pain management in patients before, during and after surgery; some anesthesiologists concentrate their practice in the area of general pain management.
Anesthesiologists are highly trained physicians that are responsible for the welfare and safety of patients; not only are these physicians responsible for pain relief during a surgical operation, but they must care for the critical life function of the patient during the operation. Generally, these physicians are responsible for the well-being of patients throughout all stages of surgery: preoperative, operative, and postoperative; many anesthesiologists also practice pain management.
When appropriate, anesthesiologists will induce a state of controlled consciousness called general anesthesia, where the patient is rendered unconscious in order to avoid feeling the pains of the operation. In regional anesthesia, a specialized area of the body will be numbed for surgery. In localized anesthesia, a smaller area of the body will be anesthetized (numbed), such as the nose or mouth. Anesthesiologists are also trained to administer sedatives to patients to relieve pain, or in certain circumstances, for the treatment of anxiety. While under anesthesia, the physician will monitor vital signs such as heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and oxygen levels, among others.
Although many may envision anesthesiologists as only being present in the operating room, their responsibilities extend well beyond. They are responsible for creating an anesthetic plan before the surgery, while also taking into account the patient’s current health situation and health history to ensure the highest degree of safety and necessary pain relief. Anesthesiologists create plans that will not interfere with the type of surgery being performed, as well as taking into account any prescription medications the patient may be taking. Anesthesiologists are also responsible for the welfare of the patient after the operation, ensuring a safe return to consciousness. Aside from surgical duties, these physicians must assist in the stabilization of critically injured/ill patients, the relief of chronic pain in patients (the medical specialty known as pain management), in respiratory and cardiac resuscitation, respiratory therapy, and in cases of blood transfusions, among others.
Robert H. McDowall, MD is board certified in:
Robert H. McDowall, MD have expertise in:
Anesthesiology New York, NY
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Robert H. McDowall, MD
Last updated on: June 15th, 2019
Best medical doctors in New York City (NYC)
A Doctor of Medicine (MD) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In some countries, the MD denotes a first professional graduate degree awarded upon initial graduation from medical school. In other countries, the MD denotes an academic research doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or advanced clinical coursework degree restricted to medical graduates; in those countries, the equivalent first professional degree is titled differently (for example, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery in countries following the tradition of the United Kingdom)
In 1703, the University of Glasgow's first medical graduate, Samuel Benion, was issued with the academic degree of Doctor of Medicine.
University medical education in England culminated with the MB qualification, and in Scotland the MD, until in the mid-19th century the public bodies who regulated medical practice at the time required practitioners in Scotland as well as England to hold the dual Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees (MB BS/MBChB/MB BChir/BM BCh etc.). North American medical schools switched to the tradition of the ancient universities of Scotland and began granting the MoD title rather than the MB beginning in the late 18th century. The Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York (which at the time was referred to as King's College of Medicine) was the first American university to grant the MD degree instead of the MB.
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Early medical schools in North America that granted the Doctor of Medicine degrees were Columbia, Penn, Harvard, Maryland, and McGill. These first few North American medical schools that were established were (for the most part) founded by physicians and surgeons who had been trained in England and Scotland.
A feminine form, "Doctress of Medicine" or Medicinae Doctrix, has also been used by the New England Female Medical College in Boston in the 1860s. In most countries having a Doctor of Medicine degree does not mean that the individual will be allowed to practice medicine. Typically a doctor must go through a residency (medicine) for at least four years and take some form of licensing examination in their jurisdiction.